Category Archives: Country

Sprachkultur as Manifestation of Power: A Case of Soviet Lithuania

Nerijus Šepetys (Vilnius University ) and Loreta Vaicekauskienė (The  Institute of Lithuanian Language, Vilnius)

The presentation provides empirical evidence on how the soviets manipulated language standardization turning it gradually into an overall regulation of “correctness” of national language. The research is based on a case of Soviet ruled Lithuania, which today can serve as an example of one of the most developed systems of language supervision in Europe.

The comparison of present Lithuania with other speech communities makes one wonder where the power-employing institutionalisation of language comes from. Some similarities can be found with late-standard communities, dominated by other languages and established during the 19th century (Subačius 2002), where the idea of Sprachkultur was a part of national(ist) ideology (cf. Spitzmüller 2007). However, in independent Lithuania (1918–1940), even during the years of authoritarian nationalist regime, tendencies of liberalization and modernization became apparent. In 1940/1944–1990 this development was terminated by Soviet occupation.

Keyword:  Sepetys

Keyword: Vaicekauskiene


Sajudis and the Lithuanian Catholic Church

Miranda R. Zapor (Baylor University)

In the late 1980s, waves of popular nationalism swept across the Socialist Republics. In this context of nascent revolution, the Lithuanian Popular Front, Sajudis, was born.

The relationship between Sajudis and the Lithuanian Catholic Church (LCC) is worthy of particular scrutiny.  In contrast to Church-nationalist unities in other Socialist Republics, Sajudis had to actively incorporate the Lithuanian Catholic Church into its agenda, rather than simply assuming that an established foundation of religio-nationalist sentiment would result in a tacit alliance.  This task was made more complex by the well-established alternative sources of Lithuanian national identity that powerfully defined the national consciousness of Sajudis members; folk culture and religion, language, and history were all strong loci of national pride.  These sources proved sufficient to motivate the elite minority, but the majority of Lithuanians identified more readily with Catholic religious culture.  Moreover, the Lithuanian Catholic Church lacked a conscientiously nationalist agenda that would organically provide the nationalist movement with popular majority support.  Thus Sajudis had to work towards incorporating the Church into its political platform.  Sajudis, recognizing the potential for nationalist influence by the Church, encouraged clergy participation and espoused Catholic concerns in an effort to gain its support and constituency.

Latvia Between the Centers of Gravitation of Soft Power – the USA and Russia

Andis Kudors (Centre for East European Policy Studies, Latvia)

As a democratic country, Latvia is open to the influence of different foreign actors. Two countries – United States and Russia have better opportunities to implement soft power policy toward Latvia than others. According to the soft power theory of Joseph Nye, soft power can be implemented through the use of public diplomacy. Nye identifies three dimensions of public diplomacy: daily communication, strategic communication, and work with opinion leaders. Since the restoration of Latvia’s independence in 1991, the political elite has traditionally been pro-American, and the same applies to the majority of ethnic Latvians. A significant characteristic is the difference of attitudes toward the USA and Russia between ethnic Latvians and the Russian speaking part of society. Previous studies show that the U.S. “loses” to Russia in daily communication. The latter has many more chances to comment on events in Russia and in the world on a daily basis to the Latvian audience. Russia’s daily and strategic communication influences the political socialization of Latvian citizens, as well as social integration processes. Besides that, the securitization of culture in Russia completely changes the assessment of Russian soft power. If the United States is interested in the future support of Latvia for its global foreign policies, then it is important to comprehend the attitudes of Latvian citizens toward the U.S. and Russia and the factors that form these attitudes.

The Economic Crisis in Latvia: A Success Story?

Vyačeslavs Dombrovskis (member of the Latvian Parliament)

Latvia’s economic crisis will likely enter economics textbooks as one of this century’s most striking and controversial episodes. Some observers, most notably Anders Aslund, herald it as a success story, an example of how a democracy (!) can overcome a deep economic crisis by defying conventional wisdom, implementing one of the most decisive fiscal adjustments (around 15 percent of GDP) and refusing to devalue its currency. Other observers, such as Paul Krugman, point to the extraordinary recession, which comes second only to the Great Depression of the 1930s. The figures are as follows. Latvia’s GDP declined by 21 percent from 2007 to 2010, unemployment peaked at 20.7 percent, real estate prices fell peak to trough by about 60 percent, about 10 percent of the population emigrated during the last ten years, and Latvia’s poverty rates are among the highest in Europe. Clearly, Latvia’s experience raises a number of important questions. Was the extent of the preceding macroeconomic imbalances largely to blame for the deep recession? Or, was it the government policies? Was internal devaluation a sound decision? What lessons does Latvian experience offer to other countries, notably other troubled Eurozone economies? During the last few years the speaker has been an Assistant Professor of economics at Stockholm School of Economics in Riga, an active blogger and commentator on economic policy issues in Latvia, and, as of recently, a member of Parliament and one of leading politicians in the newly created Reform party. His presentation will combine these three perspectives to offer a critical assessment of the Latvian experience with the crisis.

Keyword: Vyaceslavs

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Oral History Archives: Excerpts from Testimonies about the Holocaust in Lithuania

Ina Navazelskis (US Holocaust Memorial Museum)

Most of the 12,500 Holocaust-related oral history testimonies in the archives of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) were conducted with Holocaust survivors. However, some 1450 are interviews also with non-Jews, who provide direct eyewitness testimony to many aspects of the Holocaust. In my presentation I will highlight those witness testimonies that relate to the Baltics, including how the some 350 interviewees from the Baltic countries were identified and interviewed.

In addition, I will show excerpts from some interviews relating to Lithuania. Among the interviewees will be Ada Gens, daughter of Vilnius ghetto police chief Jakubas Gensas, who witnessed key events in the Vilna ghetto from 1941 until 1943. Another will be excerpts from an interview with Algimantas Gureckas, a long-time member of the US branch of Lithuanian World Community, a non-governmental organization that brought together Lithuanians living outside of Lithuania. Gureckas witnessed some of the repression that led to the eventual murder of Jews in northeastern Lithuania in the summer of 1941. Questions relating to how these oral histories inform Holocaust scholarship will be addressed. What do they contribute? How should they be used? What are the limitations of these individual testimonies?

Finally, I will briefly describe the digitized collection at the USHMM of about 100 million documents from the International Tracing Service (ITS), established after the war to help reunite families separated by the war and to trace missing individuals. Three quarters of these documents relate to non-Jewish refugees. I will provide samples of these ITS documents from some Lithuanian refugees to illustrate how they can augment oral history testimonies.

On the Masculinity Crisis in the Literary Works of A. H. Tammsaare: The Master of Kõrboja (1922)

Mirjam Hinrikus (Under-Tuglas Centre for Literary Research, Estonia)

In  his essay „Literary Style“ (1912), critic Friedebert Tuglas (1886-1971), a leading figure in the Young Estonia movement, made the following claim about modernity and Estonian life: „the city, a new tempo of life, and a new psychology…have not neglected to make their appearance here “. Tuglas summarizes these three factors as „the intellectual urbanization of the country“. The writer who most deeply articulated the dynamics behind this statement was A. H. Tammsaare (1878-1940). A crucial thematic line both in Tammsaare´s short novel The Master of Kõrboja (Kõrboja peremees, 1922), and the first and last volumes of his epic novel Truth and Justice (Tõde ja õigus) was the penetration of  technology, capitalism and urban mentality into the countryside, with the resultant profound alienation of humans from nature and agrarian society more generally.  These problems are, in turn, fraught with shifts in gender relations, specifically, a crisis in masculinity.

Anna, the  female protagonist of Tammsaare`s short novel The Master of Kõrboja, is an emancipated woman whose behaviour is marked by both the new tempo of life and urban „nervousness“, features perceived as are alien in the rural village to which she returns as the unmarried sole heir of the prosperous Kõrboja farm.  Her chosen, Villu, heir of the Katku farm,  is disabled due to an accident. Villu`s masculinity is constructed according to the gender expectations of the rural society, but it falls short of the full measure of physical health; the crisis of Villu`s masculinity leads eventually to his suicide. This paper will analyze the disintegration of representations of gender in the novel.

Financial Support and Student Labor Force Participation in Post-Soviet Latvia

Kenneth Smith (Millersville University),  Daunis Auers (University of Latvia), and Toms Rostoks (University of Latvia)

Several studies indicate student employment has a significant impact on student academic performance.  Thus it is important to understand motivations for student employment and labor force participation.  Several studies – primarily from the U.S. – indicate that the availability of financial aid and parental support play an important role in student employment.  Using data gathered from Latvian law and social science students at various Latvian institutions of higher education, we examine determinants of labor force participation.  Latvia is an interesting case study as higher education is quickly evolving in the post-Soviet era.  Unlike much of Europe, private higher education began to grow rapidly in transition and many “public” institutions charge relatively high tuition.  Further, financial aid is rapidly evolving in Latvia with a young student loan program emerging.  Results suggest that student financial support has a significant effect on labor market activity.  Our findings also indicate that the type of support is important in determining student labor market outcomes including whether a student is active in the labor market and whether or not the student is employed or unemployed.  As opposed to most studies of student labor, our data allow examination of unemployment as well as employment.  An interesting finding is that unemployment appears to have an effect on academic performance comparable to part-time work.

Estonia´s Economic Development and the Role of External Anchors

Rünno Lumiste (University of Technology, Estonia);  Robert Pefferly (Estonian Business School), and Alari Purju (University of Technology, Estonia)

Estonia is a former socialist economy which introduced comprehensive structural and institutional reforms. The country´s transition to market economy has been enhanced by integration with the European Union (EU), which was very important in institutional evolution. The research in this paper concerns the role of external anchors upon economic development. The external anchors in this context are the mandates that reflect the values, objectives and aims of socioeconomic alliance. The EU membership is considered as one important anchor and the fulfillment of a wide set of indicators for this membership framed Estonia´s economy and political system. Estonia is still a middle-income country and for future development and reduction of the income gap vis-à-vis high-income countries, further structural changes are necessary. Information and communication technologies (ICT) and new services associated with this sector could be one source of growth. This introduces a wider question: could values related to ICT and information based innovation create external anchors? Does creating a positive image and providing support for ICT applications yield measurable development in the sector and help further the role of ITC in society? The development of Skype and its applications is one candidate for this role. New ICT tools have influenced the preferences of the younger generation regarding societal behavior and working habits and tools. The development patterns of these changes, EU integration in the past and possible ICT penetration into society in the future are discussed using methods of evolutionary economics which combines historical ingredients with the impact of external anchors as catalysts.

Keyword: Runno

Investment in Latvia: Impact Analysis

Janis Zvigulis (Riga International School of Economics and Business Administration)

Investment analysis has been done on the macro and micro level in a handful of studies on many countries and regions. The most commonly used approaches are quantitative analysis of impact of investment on the national growth on aggregated level, as well as impact of investment on a disaggregated level – on specific characterizing indicators of the national economy. The studies tend to present somewhat controversial evidence of impact of investment on the national economy.  Likewise, most investment research in Latvia has been done on the macro level. The macro level analysis cannot solely explain the impact of investment on the national economy. Micro level analysis can be used for checking the macro level explanations utilizing a bottom-up approach. Hence, the aim of the paper is to analyze the macro and micro level approaches in investment analysis, conduct analysis of investment impact in Latvia, and derive conclusions about investment impact on the national economy of Latvia as well as put forward a methodological approach for investment analysis in Latvia.

Views of the Market: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

Randy Richards (St. Ambrose University)

In a 1997 article, Ian Maitland sets forth a distinction between market pessimists and market optimists.  Pessimists hold that the free market destroys the virtues essential to the functioning of both the market itself as well as the civil society. Optimists believe that the free market generates its own self-sustaining set of virtues by rewarding behavior that is good for individuals and the civil society. We constructed an eighteen item Likert-scale instrument to measure market optimism and pessimism with two questions each for a set of four behaviors: trustworthiness, sympathy, fairness and self-control (following Maitland’s suggestion).  Our research validates the instrument and shows that it neatly distinguishes between respondents’ optimistic and pessimistic beliefs.  Using the instrument, we surveyed MBA students in Lithuania and compared their responses to surveys we conducted in the U.S., Croatia and South Africa.  We explore the likely reasons for these differences and suggest some future research.