The Verbs of Speech as Grammatical Markers of Evidentiality in Latvian

Liene Kalviša (University of Latvia)

Evidentiality is associated with one of the semantic parameters of the statement, namely, with the reference to the source of information. It is semantic category, whose primary meaning is to indicate the source of information. Evidentiality is traditionally divided in two main categories:

–     direct evidentiality, which shows that the speaker has directly witnessed the action;

–         indirect evidentiality, which shows that the speaker has no direct evidence for his/her statement, but has other sources for making the statement (for example, information is reported or inferred).

There can be different levels of the source of indirectly received information – the source can be specific and it can be general as well. The use of markers of indirectly received information is one of the main parts of everyday communication and language system in general. Indirect evidentials can be inferentials, which mean that the speaker has inferred the action from available evidence, and quotatives which state that the speaker knows about the event from being told by another person.

The attention will be paid to the indirect evidentiality and its manifestation in Latvian and the analysis will include the verbs of speech and their connection with evidentiality, as well as the process of grammaticalization of particular verbs. The paper will present the analysis of different types of reported information and the semantics of some verbs of speech in different contexts and syntactic constructions.

Keyword: Kalvisa

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